Updated: Jul 17, 2022
The world as we see it is home to countless civilizations.
The unabated resonance of human history is found all across the globe in the most ancient of cultures.
One of the most well-renowned civilizations highlighting our past is the Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization is home to our earliest ancestors in the southeastern Asian region.
A place recording civility in its most refined form, Indus Valley is culture's most exquisite site.
Great cities bloomed in the flood plains of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers in modern-day Pakistan and India more than 5000 years ago during the Bronze period.
In the Indus Valley region, Mohenjo-Daro is one of the largest and oldest important cities.
However, the city varied from its contemporaries and more recent places in various ways.
A well-planned street grid and an extensive drainage system suggest that the inhabitants of the ancient Indus civilization metropolis of Mohenjo Daro were adept urban planners with veneration for water control.
But it is unclear who occupied the ancient city in modern-day Pakistan around the third millennium B.C.
The city is devoid of extravagant palaces, temples, or monuments.
There is no evident central seat of administration or indication of a monarch or queen. Modesty, order, and cleanliness were prized.
Copper and stone tools, as well as pottery, were standardized. Seals and weights reflect a carefully regulated commerce system.
The "Citadel" and the "Lower City" are the city's two districts.
The Great Granary appears to be a massive grain storage facility with numerous platforms and is one of the more fascinating buildings in the Citadel.
It's thought that the Harappans used it when they were starving or experiencing a drought.
In Eurasia, there aren't many bronze-age palaces with such colossal storage rooms.
Aside from a few guard towers around the city, Mohenjo-Daro was likewise rather unfortified.
This was most likely since the city served as the Harappan Civilization's administrative or political hub.
Individual structures within the municipality lacked thick enclosing walls or limits as well.
"When compared to the greatest residential buildings in Mesopotamia, Syria, or Crete, the largest dwellings at Mohenjo-Daro appear to be smaller and rather undefended, missing colossal, ornate façades and strongly fortified boundary walls."
Egypt, which existed about the same time as the Indus, had several palaces with substantial enclosing walls.
The fact that Mohenjo-Daro was not established around state interests like Egypt's or Mesopotamia's towns at the period could indicate that the class structure was relatively equal.
This would explain why the city's enclosing walls aren't as prevalent.
In 1922, one year after Harappa's discovery, the site's archaeological significance was recognized for the first time.
Following excavations, it was discovered that the mounds are home to the ruins of the Indus civilization's biggest city. Because of its size—roughly 3 miles (5 km) in circumference—and the relative wealth of its monuments and treasures, it has long been considered the capital of a large state.
On the other hand, its relationship with Harappa is unclear—whether the two cities existed at the same time or if one succeeded the other.
In 1980, the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Mohenjo-Daro was established.
One of the oldest examples of urban planning was Mohenjo-Daro. It was constructed on a grid arrangement, much like modern city blocks. This was in stark contrast to other cities in the vicinity.
The city also had a complex plumbing system, with hundreds of wells dotted across the streets and residential areas.
Residents could have bathing facilities in their homes since sewers and drainage lines flowed through the streets.
"Water and privacy were provided by an enormous network of wells, sewers, and restrooms, which may have bred new kinds of identity.
"The Indus Valley civilization is famed for its massive agricultural expansion and improvement; it was a predecessor of well-structured buildings.
The society also gave rise to a codified written language for accounting operations, fueled by the various economic activities in the core of the cities, resulting in so much expansion, sophisticated lifestyles, and progress.
The amount of knowledge and creativity displayed by the residents of the Indus Valley is remarkable.
The slow deterioration that eventually leads to the demise of civilization answers many issues.
Researchers have proposed a theory as to why the once-promising society was wiped out.
The most convincing explanation for the civilization's death is that internal deterioration caused by floods and climatic change led to the end of the Indus Valley civilization.
author: Rishika Kumari
editor: Akash R. Ekka